Phosphohexose Isomerase (PHI) is an enzyme that regulates anaerobic metabolism. This enzyme is the so called Autocrine Motility Factor (AMF), and is one of the main cellular causes of malignancy, i.e. cell migration. It is a neurokine type of cytokine. PHI also plays a most important role in cells becoming cancerous by turning them into sugar users. It is responsible for channeling the cells into low oxygen glycolysis ie. fermentation. Because cancer cells favor anaerobic conditions PHI is an excellent marker. It can be elevated in developing cancers, existing cancers, or in an acute heart, liver, muscle disease, or acute viral infection. Examples of these acute conditions are myocardial infarction, hepatitis, aids, and traumatic muscle injury. If an acute condition can be ruled out, cancer may be the cause of the elevated result and the 10-12 year cancer developmental period's time may be ticking.
Normal results are <34.0 (less than 34), with a gray zone of 35.0 - 40.0, however, in an established malignancy a change even within the normal range could be significant. Take notice that this enzyme is the AMF (autocrine motility factor), causing malignant cancer spread. Consequently, cancer can be spread by dislodging one or more cancer cells during surgery or other procedures, and by the PHI enzyme.
Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably..